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Education in Bhutan

Published by UNESCO "UNION NACIONAL DE EDUCACION SUPERIOR CONTINUA ORGANIZADA"

 "NATIONAL UNION OF CONTINUOUS ORGANIZED HIGHER EDUCATION"

 


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Education System in Bhutan

 

 

Education

School/Level

Grade From

Grade To

Age From

Age To

Years

Notes

Primary

Primary School

1

6

6

12

6

All Bhutan Primary Certificate Examination

Middle

Lower Secondary School

7

9

12

15

3

Bhutan Certificate of Secondary Education

Secondary

Upper Secondary School

9

12

15

18

3

Bhutan Higher Secondary Education Certificate

Tertiary

Diploma

 

 

 

 

2

 

Tertiary

Bachelors degree

 

 

 

 

3

 

Tertiary

Bachelors (Honours) degree program

 

 

 

 

4

 

Tertiary

Post-Graduate Diploma

 

 

 

 

2

1.5 - 2 years following a Bachelors degree

Tertiary

Master of Education

 

 

 

 

4

4 years of part-time study

 

Primary Education

Education in Bhutan in the mountainous region between China and India is a voluntary affair, because many of the people live in far-flung places where they follow traditional lives. In larger settlements where primary schools exist, children are taught for seven years, mainly in English.

Secondary Education

Even fewer children complete a further four years of secondary education, which follows a general academic curriculum without opportunities for specialization. More wealthy parents have the choice of sending children to private schools instead, often in foreign countries.

Tertiary Education

Bhutan EducationThere is a single higher-level junior college, and two teacher training colleges. The sole tertiary institution is the University of Bhutan, founded by royal decree in 2003 and illustrated here. 

Its faculties offer diplomas and degree courses in science & technology, business studies, traditional medicine, language & culture, education, health sciences, natural resources, and management. Students whose needs are not catered for will study elsewhere abroad.

Country Overview

Perched alongside the foothills of the Himalayan Ranges the 38, 394 square kilometers of landlocked and isolated mountain Kingdom threw open its doors to modernization in the early 1960s. The geographical landscape is entirely mountainous in nature with the land rising from about 200 meters above sea level in the south to the higher Himalayas in the north reaching over 7500 meters. The tiny Himalayan Kingdom also known as the Land of the Thunder Dragon is home to a prominent variety of climates and ecosystems. Essentially, the country is divided into three major land regions: plains and river valleys in the south; a midHimalayan (5,000 to 14,000 ft. high) area north of the valleys; and the mountainous lands in the Himalayas, which range from 14,000 to 24,000 ft. above sea level. Historically, apart from its occasional skirmishes with British India and Tibet, Bhutan’s political and economical ambiance has remained largely unaffected by world wars and other major events such as discoveries and inventions in the world. This has led to a largely agrarian or particularly subsistence farming society throughout the length and breath of the country. Quick Figures Land Area         38,3 age of only 51 and handed over the reign of the Kingdom to the fifth King His Majesty Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck. The people of Bhutan, while wary of the changes because of 100 years of continuous peace and progress under benevolent monarchs, had much to look forward to the future.   The national language of Bhutan is Dzongkha. English is the medium of instruction in the schools and Dzongkha is taught as the national language; recognizing both Dzongkha and English as the official languages. Population and Housing Census conducted in 2005 revealed the total population of Bhutan to be 634,982: 333,595 (52.5%) males and 301,387 (47.5%) females. The adult population (15 years and above) according to the same census was 425,023 including 227,831(53.5%) males and 197,192(46.5%) females which comprises of 66.9% of the total population. The participation rate of adult population in the labor force is estimated at 67.3% (274,100) in which the female participation is lower at 60.6% (127,300). The participation of urban women is even lower; more than half of the urban women are not part of economically active population. Taking into consideration the ratio of unemployed population to the labor force, the unemployment rate in Bhutan in 2007 was estimated at 3.7%. The Kingdom is divided into 20 Dzongkhags or Districts which are further divided into 205 Geogs for overall administrative purpose.   2. Overview of Higher Education System 2.1 growth of Education System: The education system in Bhutan has two major components, the ecclesiastical oriented institutions and the state led general or secular education. With the advent of Buddhism in Bhutan in the 8th century, monastic schools came to play an important role in the lives of the people; and it continues today and will be relevant in future too. It is assumed that “any form of education before the establishment of Buddhism, if it existed at all, would have been informal, home based, oral, and ritualistic”. The modern form of education was introduced in Bhutan with the establishment of the first school in 1915 and more schools grew in the 1950s. It has been promoted and expanded since the first Five Year Plan in 1961 corresponding to the embarkation of modern development in 1961 to address the basic educational needs, and develop human resources required for the socio-economic development of the country. The formal education structure in Bhutan consists of 7 years of primary education (including PrePrimary) and 6 years of secondary education, comprising of 2 years each of lower, middle and higher secondary. This is followed by a 3 to 4-year degree programme at various university colleges and institutes in the country. Basic education extends from class PrePrimary to class X, and is available to every citizen in the country. The minimum official entry age into the formal education system is 6 at the Pre-Primary (PP) class. Primary schooling (PP-VI) is provided in the community primary, primary, lower secondary and in some of the middle secondary schools. 4 Lower secondary schooling (Classes VII and VIII) is provided in the lower, middle and some higher secondary schools while classes IX-X are provided in the middle and higher secondary schools. Access to post-basic education (class XI) in government administered schools is based on the students' performance in the national examinations at the end of Class X. After completion of general education up to Class X, students then chose from the three streams of study for the higher secondary level – arts, commerce and science, which determines what profession they pursue thereafter. Those who do not qualify for higher secondary education repeat or seek admission into vocational training institutes. Others, who can afford the fees, go outside the country for Class XI or join the private higher secondary schools that offer Class XI. After completion of high school (Class XII), students that qualify receive government scholarship to continue their education at the tertiary level with the Royal University of Bhutan. A limited number of students are selected for government scholarships for pursuing professional studies abroad, while others who can afford it fund tertiary education both at home and abroad. 2.2 Growth of Tertiary Education System: The Ministry of Education is responsible for the development of overall national education system of the country including tertiary education. Within the Ministry of Education the Department of Adult & Higher education (DAHE) formally established in 2003 in accordance with the 9th FiveYear Plan has the mandate to oversee all aspects of tertiary education, nonformal education and adult education.   The Department shoulders this responsibility through three Divisions: Scholarships Division (SD), Tertiary Education Division (TED) and Nonformal & Continuing Education Division (NFCED) whose roles are collectively geared towards facilitating efficient delivery of postsecondary education, tertiary and adult education in the country respectively. Cognizant of the need for developing our higher education system, the Royal University of Bhutan was established on June 2, 2003 under a Royal Charter issued on April 18 2003 on a system of federation of colleges. The University Council is the supreme governing body of the University. The Chairman is appointed by the Royal Government, the appointee normally being a cabinet minister and shall not be an employee or student of the University.   With its establishment the public tertiary education institutions most of which were established more than two decades ago, were transferred from the various ministries to the Royal University of Bhutan in 2003 upon. The University the first in the Kingdom now administers two Colleges of Education, College of Science and Technology, College of Natural Resources, Sherubtse College, Gaedugg College of Business Studies, Royal Institute of Health Science, Royal Institute of Management, National Institute of Indigenous Medicine, Institute of Language and Cultural Studies and Jigme Namgyel Polytechnic.   It must be pointed out that this discussion includes Monastic education system which has continued to play a major role in the history of the Kingdom and it has its own system in place.   A few more universities and/or specialized institutions are envisaged to be established in the near future which may or may not be on similar lines as the present university. These may be established by the government, private or with international partnership.   5 At the moment the Royal University of Bhutan is able to cater to the needs of about ten percent of the class XII graduates on full government scholarships. The other ten percent pursue their tertiary education abroad mainly in India, a large number of whom are on private scholarships. 2.3 Nature of Tertiary Education: According to the draft Tertiary Education Policy (TEP) the categorization of levels in the higher education in Bhutan like many other countries in Asia and elsewhere are mapped on the basis of the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) which was formally approved by the UNESCO General Conference in 1997.   The following table shows levels of education according to ISCED 1997: Table 1: Levels of education according to ISCED 1997 Sl.No. Level 0 Preprimary education 1. Level 1 Primary education or first stage of education 2. Level 2 Lower secondary or second stage of education 3. Level 3 Upper secondary education 4. Level 4 Postsecondary nontertiary education 5. Level 5 First stage of tertiary education 6. Level 6 Second stage of tertiary education Tertiary education is defined as:   “education offered after class XII, consistent with the International Standard Classification of Education [1997 edition] level 5 and above.”   Under ‘level 5 and above’ of the International Standard of Classification of Education produced by UNESCO are included: Level 5A: Programmes that are largely theorybased and are intended to provide sufficient qualifications for gaining entry into advanced research programmes and professions with high skills requirements.   Level 5b: Programmes that focus on practical technical or occupational skills for direct entry into the labour market. Level 6: Programmes that are devoted to advanced studies and original research. Higher education is commonly understood to encompass 5A and 6 but not 5B. Thus tertiary education includes higher education but is not synonymous with it. Thus, in Bhutan, tertiary education encompasses both degree and diploma programmes, including undergraduate diploma programmes.   6 Higher or Tertiary education consist of professional and general programmes which are offered at different levels   diploma, degree, taught postgraduate, and by different modes of study, fulltime, parttime, short duration and distance learning provision. Although degrees in Research and PhDs are not offered at the moment, there are plans to offer in the near future.   The following tables 2 & 3 provide the genderwise total number of teaching staff and students categorized as per ISCED 97 in the tertiary institutes within and outside the country. 2.4 Gender Parity in Tertiary Education: Table 2: Teaching staff by type of programmes as of 2008 ISCED97 Type of Programme Male Female Total 5A First stage (leading to entry into advanced research programmes) 374 115 489 5B First stage (Not leading to entry into advanced research programmes) 165 41 206 6 Second stage (leading to entry into advanced research qualification)     5+6 Total 539 156 695 5+6 Public Institutions 539 156 695 Private Institutions       Table 3: Students enrolled by type of programmes as of 2008 ISCED97 Type of Programme Male Female Total 5A First stage (leading to entry into advanced research programmes) 1507 832 2339 5B First stage (Not leading to entry into advanced research programmes) 800 240 1040 6 Second stage (leading to entry into advanced research qualification)     5+6 Total 2307 1072 3379 5+6 Public Institutions 2307 1072 3379 Private Institutions           There are students studying in various Indian colleges and Institutes and also abroad in countries such as Bangladesh, Nepal, Philippines, Uk, Thailand, & USA Place Male Female Total Indian Colleges/ 1396 1933 3329 7 Institutes Students Abroad 11 18 29 Total 3358 Incountry and excountry together are about 20 percent of the students who pass class XII. 3. Governance The Ministry of Education having mandate for the overall development of the Tertiary Education System in the country is responsible for formulating policies and regulating tertiary education institutes through planning and funding, registration and licensing and quality assurance.  Under the ministry the Department of Adult and Higher Education with Tertiary Education Division under it has the overall responsibility for all tertiary education activities.   The Registrar for Tertiary Education (chaired by the Minister for Education) together with the Board for tertiary education are envisaged to provide an oversight and direction to the tertiary education institutes  through the same mechanism as mentioned here above in the following manner. a. Funding: The Tertiary Education Planning and Funding Board shall enter into contracts with institutions to provide programmes of study for specified numbers of students. b. Registration and Licensing: Universities shall be established by Royal Charter or by an Act of Parliament; and independent colleges shall be required to be registered and licensed. c. Quality Assurance: All tertiary programmes offered in Bhutan shall be subject to a quality assurance process which will assure that high education standards are set and maintained. With the establishment of clear guidance and procedures and specific lines of accountability, it is anticipated that there will be devolution of major financial and managerial responsibility from the government to the institutions. Organizational Structure of the Royal University of Bhutan The formal organization of the university is complimented by nonstatutory advisory bodies to enhance the development and functioning of the new university. 8    Committee of Directors, consisting of the Vice Chancellor, the Registrar, and the Directors of the Colleges/Institutes will meet regularly to advise the Vice Chancellor on the overall management of the University. The continual involvement of member institutes in the development of the university is crucial to the dispersed model of the university. Academic Advisory Committee shall be appointed by the University Council on the recommendation of the Vice Chancellor, and shall consist of senior and experienced academics including overseas persons who can provide guidance to the University in its development, particularly in its formative years. The university is in the process of setting up this committee. Sector Advisory Committees will be formed to maintain close links between the Institutes and those sectors of the economy, which they most closely serve, to which the staff can best contribute and where their graduates will be employed. 4. Quality The only university in the country, The Royal University of Bhutan has its own quality assurance inbuilt in the system. Further, the quality assurance is envisaged to take place as captured under draft Tertiary Education Policy which states that: Every university based in Bhutan shall be required to have an effective quality assurance system and every programme offered by a college (colleges do not have powers to grant awards), shall lead to the award of a 9 university and be subject to that quality assurance process. The university may be a university in Bhutan or an external university deemed by the Registrar for Tertiary Education to be reputable for this purpose. A process of quality assurance shall be established in every university established. It shall include the following essential elements: a) a periodic critical evaluation of each programme by those staff involved in the programme’s operation, and an evaluation of the plans for or the operation of the programme by a group of peers including external members, involving direct discussions with the staff, students and other relevant persons; all based on documentation provided by the staff offering the programme including the defined programme and the critical evaluation;   b) an actionoriented report, with responsibility points and a postaudit follow up; c) a system of comparisons with international standards and healthy practices; d) relationship of the programme to the university’s strategic plan; e) a system of professional staff development; f) an external evaluation of the university’s quality assurance process itself by an accrediting agency. Further the draft Tertiary Education Policy states that: To facilitate the comparison of programmes, transfer of credits, and sharing of modules and programmes a Bhutan Qualifications Framework shall be established by the Board within one year of the establishment of the Board. This framework shall be used for all programmes subsequently developed within the country. This framework shall seek to provide a clear relationship between School, Vocational and Tertiary Education. The universities shall be subject to a fiveyearly periodic university review, undertaken by external reviewers, which will cover their quality assurance processes. The report of the review shall be made available to the Registrar for Tertiary Education. If the Minister of Education has grounds for serious concerns about the quality of the programmes being offered, and hence concerns about the effectiveness of the management of the university, either arising from the external review of the university or from other sources, it may on its own account set up a review of the university with advice from a accreditation body from another country. The Registrar for Tertiary Education shall be responsible for ensuring that the public is informed of the level and standard of each award and programmes available.   5. Emerging Issues and Challenges Bhutan like many other developing countries also faces unequivocal challenges and constraints in terms of higher education and issues thereof.   • Increased enrollment at primary and secondary education levels are leading to pressing demand for access to postsecondary opportunities.   • Dependence of tertiary institutes outside the country leading to exodus of students to India and abroad.   • Lack of crossfertilization of Ideas and linkages with international universities threatening growth of new ideas.   10 • Lack of wellestablished regulatory system leading to obscuration of output and directions of institutes and colleges • And above all institutional lack of autonomy in terms of financing and resources both human and material has challenged the progressive growth of both staff and campuses.   The rapid growth in education in recent years has come at a cost. As in all levels of education, the quality of higher education has also been challenged. In Bhutan it is because of lack of critical number of tertiary institutions in the country.   At present, Bhutan also lack sufficient numbers of qualified individuals to staff a multicampus university providing a diverse array of programmes. The situation is not likely to improve in the near future. The leadin time for such provision is significant and will take several years for a critical mass of qualified professionals to become available.   The effectiveness with which the teachers, the students and the administrative staff function and the quality of their endeavours would depend upon the facilities that are available to them. These facilities may be broadly categorized as academic, physical infrastructure, resources and extra curricular facilities. Provision of facilities involves huge capital investment. The maintenance and upkeep of these facilities also implies recurring (maintenance) costs. Besides, payment of salaries to teachers and administrative staff, and other expenses relating to the management of tertiary education also involves heavy expenditure. It is in this context that funding of tertiary education becomes a crucial policy issue. It is true that funding by itself does not assure quality. However, without adequate funding, the quality of tertiary education will be seriously impaired. The programmes of study must also be consistent with the strategic plans of the country, improve the employability of students, and meet the human power needs of the economy. They must involve a combination of knowledge, skill, and personality development. Programmes should be compared with the best international practice from other universities, from professional bodies, from NGO’s etc.    Libraries, ICT facilities, and staff qualifications and performance should be compared with good practices in other countries, both developed and developing Much of tertiary education in Bhutan has remained rather insulated from what is happening in the area of tertiary education at the international level. Given the lack of a critical mass of institutions and academics in the country, and the lack of competitive culture among institutions, ensuring and enhancing quality requires the Bhutan institutions to open themselves up to international developments. Bhutan must establish mutually beneficial alliances with topquality universities and institutions around the world.   The Quality Assurance system needs to have a definite philosophy underpinning its structure. These should include:    a) A critical evaluation of a programme by those staff involved in the programme’s operation, and a meeting by a group of peers with the staff, students and other relevant persons based on the defined programme and the critical self appraisal,   b) an action oriented report, with responsibility points and a post audit follow up c) international bench marking d) relationship to the institution strategic plan, and e) staff development and the development of a culture of quality 11 To ensure that quality consciousness is put in place, both as an idea and in practice, a mechanism needs to be put in place to inculcate the essentials of quality at the college and department level and to monitor adherence to the quality norms. To address this state of affairs, the Ministry of Education through the Department of Adult and Higher Education has proposed to the highest executive body for the establishment of Tertiary Education Board (TEB).   That board shall be established with the power and responsibility    a) To set goals and objectives for tertiary education, to determine the capacity of the system to meet those goals, to determine gaps, to develop a strategy to meet the goals, and then to implement that strategy, with specific respect to those parts of the tertiary educational system funded by the Board. b) To allocate funds accordingly (including funds to institutions and funds to students). The Board’s remit shall cover the planning and funding (where this is appropriate) of a) all programmes of tertiary education offered in the country in all modes of study (full time, parttime etc), all subject areas, for all types of entrants (including entrants from employment or school or other educational and training institutions), and for all types of students (preservice, inservice, cpd  etc);   b) all tertiary training undertaken abroad (whether inservice or preservice) c) research undertaken in tertiary educational institutions (including base funding),   d) Specific projects which shall be timelimited, eg research, developmental, capital. The Royal Government of Bhutan aims to provide an enabling environment for private sector/investment including Foreign Direct Investment in the tertiary education sector through clearer procedures, provision of financial incentives, favourable procedures for employment of foreign faculty and entry of foreign students into Bhutan, etc. Bhutan will thus need to explore the potentials of using its unique position to develop within Bhutan a sector of the tertiary education that can cater to the international education market, to attract foreign students, and thus allow enrichment of student life and also contributing to the economy. 6. Financing of Higher Education Bhutan provides free education from primary to tertiary level. The constitution, vide section 16of Article 9 guarantees free education to all Bhutanese children up to Class X. In all government administered schools and institutes, education is still provided free even though access beyond Class X is governed by the limit in capacity: students are admitted based on their academic performance. Students are not only given free tuition but also provided with many other free facilities, like stationary, textbooks, sports items, boarding facilities and food based on need even in day schools.   12 Ever since the advent of modern development in Bhutan by the launch of the 1st Five Year Plan in 1961, the social sectors of education and health has received highest priority from the Royal Government. Even now, these sectors continue to receive the highest budgetary support year after year. Table 4: Education Sector Outlay as compared to total budget of the 1st to 10th Five Year Plans (million Ngultrums) Five Year Plan Period Total Government Total Government Budget Education Budget % of Total Budget 1st (19961 1966)   107.1 9.4 8.8 2nd (1966 –1971)   202.2 35.7 17.7 3rd (1971 – 1976)   475.2 90.0 18.9 4th (1976 – 1981)   1,106.2 134.6 12.2 5th (1981 – 1987)   4,648.3 519.1 11.2 6th (1987 – 1992)   9,559.2 778.8 8.1 7th (1992 – 1997)   15,590.7 1,738.0 11.1 8th (1997 – 2002) 34,981.7 3,292.7 9.4 9th (2002 – 2008) 70,000.0 10,209.4 14.5 10th (2008 – 2013) (draft) 141,692.2 33,453.5 23.6 Table 5: Annual Budget Breakdown of the Education Ministry, Royal University of Bhutan and Vocational Institutes for 3 financial years (Nu. Millions) Sl. No. Agencies/Institutes 2004-05 200506 200607 1. Ministry of Education 2,956.759 2,367.976 3,072.85 2. Royal University of Bhtuan 235.088 353.490 444.923 3. Vocaltional Institutes(under Ministry of Labour and Human Resources 50.303 69.300 99.998 The government has also made high investments for higher education for India and abroad for scholarship programmes.   Table 6: Budget Expenditure: Incurred for Undergraduate Scholarships Sl. No. Financial Year RGOB GOI 1. 20032004 27.189 32.233 2. 20042005 46.032 32.788 13 3. 20052006 46.622 31.659 4. 20062007 48.071 25.538 5. 20072008 59.639 31.583 Total 228.553 153.801 In view of the increasing costs and the ability of certain sections of society having acquired the capacity to finance the education of their children, policy trend is shifting gradually towards cost sharing.    7. Reforms in higher education policies/institutions Social and economic progress has been achieved principally through human kind’s quest for higher levels of awareness and understanding and the advancement and application of knowledge. Tertiary education is thus necessary to awaken the individual and realize his or her potential for the effective creation, dissemination, and application of knowledge and to serve and do good to others.   The development of tertiary education for human capital formation is vital in a dynamic international context where knowledgebased work is assuming greater significance as key determinants of national economic growth as well as global competitiveness. To build on the development success of the past and prepare for the future Bhutan must structure its tertiary education system to promote the creation and application of knowledge. The Higher education in Bhutan is at its embryonic stage although the nation has increasing quantity and quality of skilled and professionals over the years who were trained in India and abroad. Due to the increasing number of students going for higher education and also growth of public as well as private colleges, the Ministry of Education through the Department of Adult and Higher Education has come up with a draft Tertiary Education Policy which will help in instituting a system to coordinate, align and expedite the development of the tertiary education system in the country.   Thus, the draft Tertiary Education Policy envisages bringing reforms and changes as highlighted in its aims and objectives: Aims of Tertiary Education The overall aims of tertiary education shall be to:   a) Shape the attitudes and values of our people to provide sound foundation for building a civil society which is vital for good governance and democracy;   b) Prepare individuals and institutions with specific skills and knowledge to contribute to the economy of the country and also fill highlevel scientific, technical, professional and managerial positions both in public and private sectors. c) Support the development of the individual, society and the nation through creation and dissemination of knowledge for human capital formation; d) Transmit to the new generations the lessons of the accumulated wisdom and experiences of the past for the promotion and enrichment of our culture; and e) Enable individuals to learn about themselves and their society as a basis for developing compassion and regard for the wellbeing of others and for the greater happiness of all. 14 f) Create a backbone of a country’s information infrastructure through their role as repositories and conduits of information (through libraries and the like), computer network hosts, and Internet service providers Strategies The aims of Tertiary Education in Bhutan are envisaged to be achieved through the following strategies: a) Align developments    in tertiary education to the needs of the changing society and economy; b) Facilitate and enhance the growth and expansion of quality tertiary education institutions for all Bhutanese who are willing and able to pursue tertiary education; c) Establish relationship between the government and the tertiary education providers in terms of registration and licensing, planning and financing, and accreditation and quality assurance; d) Create a liberal and stable policy environment that is conducive for the growth of and participation by private and international campuses in the tertiary education system; e) Facilitate creation of a knowledge hub in support of knowledge economy in the country; f) Develop tertiary education as an industry that can cater to both domestic and international markets; g) Provide guidance on financing tertiary education through government and non government sources; and h) Consolidate and create a system of national research. A strategic objective for Bhutan shall be to increase research, innovation and the use of new knowledge in all aspects of the country’s work; to improve the system for the dissemination of information and the provision of relevant information to persons in need of that information; and lastly to develop a culture of enquiry and investigation, in society and in schools. To achieve this objective a National Council for Research and Innovation shall be established.   8. Conclusion Higher education contributes to national development in three principal ways. First, it prepares the primary and secondary teachers who shape the dimensions and quality of the overall education system. Second, those teachers train the highlevel technical and administrative personnel needed in government, business, and industry. Higher education institutions operate as incubators of the innovation and creative thinking needed for an economically competitive society. Tertiary education institutions also have a critical role in supporting knowledgedriven economic growth strategies and the construction of democratic, socially cohesive societies. Tertiary education assists the improvement of the institutional regime through the training of competent and responsible professionals needed for sound macroeconomic and public sector management. Its academic and research activities provide crucial support for the national innovation system. And tertiary institutions often constitute the backbone of a country’s information infrastructure, in their 15 16 role as repositories and conduits of information (through libraries and the like), computer network hosts, and Internet service providers.   In addition, the norms, values, attitudes, and ethics that tertiary institutions impart to students are the foundation of the social capital necessary for constructing healthy civil societies and cohesive cultures—the very bedrock of good governance and democratic political systems (Harrison and Huntington 2000). To successfully fulfill their educational, research, and informational functions in the 21st century, tertiary education institutions need to be able to respond effectively to changing education and training needs, adapt to a rapidly shifting tertiary education landscape, and adopt more flexible modes of organization and operation.   In a fast changing nation like Bhutan with its proactive culture, the government, ministry and the tertiary institutes shall strive to stay tune to the changing times and will continue to evolve as it has done within a century, from a mythical ShangriLa to a new forward looking nation state. 

 

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