Education in Albania
Published by UNESCO "UNION NACIONAL DE EDUCACION SUPERIOR CONTINUA ORGANIZADA"
"NATIONAL UNION OF CONTINUOUS ORGANIZED HIGHER EDUCATION"
The Albanian literacy rate hovers at around 99% and efforts are ongoing to maintain this. Although education is only compulsory for the first 9 grades, most young people stay on through to grade 12. The academic year, divided into two semesters begins in september / october and ends in june / july. Primary education lasts for 9 years following a non-mandatory period spent at preschool.
Secondary education known as regular takes a further three years to complete. The focus is on academic teaching and preparation for university. Many schools have recently been rebuilt and are being equipped with modern technologies.
Vocational education, which is an alternative to regular school takes between 2 to 5 years depending on whether a simple diploma or a full trade qualification is desired. Considerable effort by the state in this direction is adding muscle to a growing economy.
There are a significant number or universities in Albania both public
and private, and these are well dispersed in the major cities. The University
of Tirana was the first when founded in 1957, and today has a student
population approaching 15,000 and a teaching staff of nearly 900.
Structure of Educational System
INSTITUTION TYPES & CREDENTIALS
Types of higher education institutions:
School leaving and higher education credentials:
Diplomė e Studimeve te Thelluara pasuniversitare
Doktor i Shkencave
STRUCTURE OF EDUCATION SYSTEM
Duration of compulsory education:
Age of entry: 6
Age of exit: 14
Structure of school system:
Basic First Stage
Type of school providing this education: Cikėl i Ulėt (Elementary)
Length of program in years: 4
Age level from: 6 to: 10
Basic Second Stage
Type of school providing this education: Cikėl i Lartė (Primary)
Length of program in years: 4
Age level from: 10 to: 14
Certificate/diploma awarded: Dėftesė Lirimi (Leaving Certificate)
Type of school providing this education: Shkollė e Mesme e Pėrgjithshme (High School)
Length of program in years: 4
Age level from: 14 to: 18
Certificate/diploma awarded: Dėftesė Pjekurie (Maturity Certificate)
Type of school providing this education: Shkollė Professionale (Vocational School)
Length of program in years: 3
Age level from: 14 to: 17
Certificate/diploma awarded: Dėftesė e pėrfundimit dhe Ēertifikatė e aftėsive profesionale pėr punėtor tė kualifikuar (Certificate and certificate of vocational abilities)
Type of school providing this education: Shkollė Teknike (High Technical School)
Length of program in years: 5
Age level from: 14 to: 19
Certificate/diploma awarded: Dėftesė e pėrfundimit dhe Ēetifikatė e aftėsive profesionale pėr punėtor tė kualifikuar
Basic education lasts for eight years, divided into two cycles of four years each and leads to the Dėftesė Lirimi (Leaving Certificate). Secondary education consists of the ninth through twelfth grades, which are taught in the shkollė e mesme (high school). The Dėftesė Pjekurie (Maturity Certificate) is awarded at the end. Access to higher education requires the passing of an entrance examination. Admission to high school requires a Dėftesė Lirimi (Leaving Certificate) from a shkollė 8-vjecare (eight-year school).
The higher education system in Albania consists of eight universities, two academies and six non public higher schools.
Main laws/decrees governing higher education:
Decree: Decision of the Council of Ministers no 156 Year: 2001
Concerns: Post-university qualifications and qualifications for research and teaching personnel
Decree: Law on Education Year: 1995
Concerns: Pre-university level
Decree: Law on Higher Education no 8461 Year: 1999
Concerns: University, non-university and post-university schools
Classes from: Oct to: Jun
Languages of instruction: Albanian
Stages of studies:
Non-university level post-secondary studies (technical/vocational type):
University level studies:
University level first stage: Diplomė (Bachelor):
The first stage of higher education usually takes 6 to 12 semesters (3 to 6 years) (6 semesters for most disciplines, 12 semesters in Medicine). A Titull (title) is conferred.
University level second stage: Diplomė e Studimeve te Thelluara pasuniversitare (Master):
Postgraduate studies lasting 2 - 4 semesters after completion of the first stage of higher education lead to the Diplomė e Studimeve te Thelluara pasuniversitare degree (Master). Students must prepare a thesis.
University level third stage: Doktor I Shkencave (Doctor of Sciences):
Studies lasting for 6 to 10 semesters after the Master consist in individual study and research (while working). The title of Doktor I Shkencave is conferred. Admission prerequisites include research and scientific activities and publications. The candidate, under the supervision of a scientific researcher, must prepare and defend a dissertation thesis. There is a grading system.
Training of pre-primary and primary/basic school teachers
Teachers for the ēerdhe dhe kopesht fėmijėsh (nursery) and kopesht fėmijėsh (kindergarten) are trained in 6 semesters at the Shkollė e Mesme Pedagogjike (pedagogical high school). On graduation they obtain an Edukatore per Ēerdhe dhe Kopesht Femijesh Diploma (kindergarten-governess diploma). Teachers for the lower cycle of the eight-year school are trained in 6 semesters at a higher education institution. They obtain a Mesues te Ciklit Parashkollor Diploma. Teachers for the upper cycle are trained in eight semesters in an academic area and follow education courses and practical training. They obtain the Mesues per Ciklin e Ulet Diploma.
Training of secondary school teachers
Teachers for high school are trained in 8 semesters in an academic field and follow education courses and practical training. They obtain the Mesues per Shkollat e Mesme Diploma.
Training of higher education teachers
Certification of teachers depends on their first and second degrees, post-university studies and the defence of a dissertation or doctoral thesis. The rank of professor requires the degree of Doctor of Sciences and a background of extensive research, teaching and publishing. A docent is an experienced researcher and instructor holding the Candidate of Sciences degree. There are also two types of teaching positions at higher education institutions that do not require a scientific degree: pedagog and assistant, who must hold a Diploma with excellent grades.
Distance higher education
Part-time distance learning and correspondence courses are offered (university and post-university level).
Lifelong higher education
Continuing education courses are offered for Diploma holders who have a good academic background plus at least two years of work experience in their field. The courses are offered for employment purposes. They are not academic programmes. Upon completion of these courses, a Dėshmi (certificate) is issued. It may indicate a grade for the course.